Topic For Wireless Network Research Report Low Power Distributed Wireless Networks: Troubleshooting Problems And Solutions
Wireless Networking is the most rapidly evolving technology as we can see this Wireless Network Research Report. The main reason for the rapid evolution is that this network uses the lowest possible power consumptions for the distribution of the signals. The CCNA wireless networks have given the extra edge over the past wireless networks . The IEEE has the main protocol setter for the widely used WAN networks. IEEE has developed many a standard over the time which has provided the advancements in the networks .
The advancement in the network assignments also raises some of the key issues while implementing or while running the WAN networks according to Wireless Network Research Report. The major threat what any WAN network does receive is the security issues and the connection issues like getting slow or dropping the signals etc. The main purpose of this study is that to identify and to troubleshoot as many as commonly faced problems with providing a feasible solution .
WAN stands for Wireless Local Area Network, this is the most popular implemented network in the current industry. Small offices are implementing this network very rapidly because of the two reasons. The first reason is that this network costs lower than the other network structures and the second reason is that the trouble shootings for this network are easier than the other networks.
2.1 WAN Technology
This network is very much expanded and sometimes it can be expanded to the countries sometimes, but the major implementation happens in the smaller networks. The advancement in the WAN technology has provided much technological advancement in the connections. WAN uses one or two layers in the operational layer. The two widely used layers are either through Ethernet of through Wi-Fi.
Leased line is one of the most expensive but widely accepted in the big organisational behaviour. The main reason for the popularity of this technology is that it’s a point-to-point connection between the two computers or servers or within the two networks. The main advantage of this network is that it provides the highest possible accessing speed as the entire connection is through a dedicated line. This connection is very much popular for the larger organisations because of its level of security. This connection is one of the most secure available connections in recent times. This Leases line uses the protocols like HDLC, HNAS, SDLC and PPP .
The second one is Circuit switching in Wireless Network Research Report. This is in lower expense mode than the Leased line. The main implementation architecture what the model follows it creates a fully dedicated circuit path between the end node. The main disadvantage of circuit switching network is that it has a very bad feedback in call setups due to its lower bandwidth. The band width rage where it operates is between the 28 to 144Kbits/seconds . This architecture follows majorly two protocols the first one is PPP and the second one is ISDN.
The third one is connection oriented Packet Switching. In this Wireless Network Research Report architecture one device is installed and that device transports the packets through a single point-to-point or multipoint link across a carrier but the entire structure will be a shared structure. This architecture is majorly implemented only for configuring the international networks across the national borders. While configuring the international network through implementing this method it uses virtual circuits in Wireless Network Research Report. There are two types of circuits are available one is PVC-Permanent Virtual Circuits and the second one is SVC-Switched Virtual Circuits . The packet length which is variable under the circumstances sends through either through SVC or through PVC depending upon the logical scenarios. The protocols used here are either frame-relay of the X.25.
The fourth one is Connectionless packet Switching. The main architecture of this connection is that the end node only delivers packets to the corresponding network and the network send that offered packet to the destination address provided by the end node. The best example of this kind of network is the commonly used internet connection [6, pp.48-50]. The protocol what has been used by this architecture is the IPv4 and the IPv6. IPv6 is the most advanced option available now. The main disadvantage of this connection is that it shares the media links across the connection. The main advantage of this connection is that it can be implemented in a robust scenario and the maintenance overhead is much lower than the other three connection described [8, pp.103].
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The oldest one is the call relay architecture. In this architecture the data are being transmitted after dividing it into fixed sizable packets. Once the data is being divided then the packets are being sent through the virtual networks. This architecture used the ATM protocol. This architecture was used in times before 2000.
2.2 WAN Protocols
The widely used WAN protocols are PPP, SDLC, HDLC, ISDN, X.25, Ipv6 and IPv4. The PPP uses a protocol which connects through direct connection between the two different nodes. The connection is established through the process of authentication. The authentication layer is often secured through a process of encryption. The PPP network uses physical lines through telephone lines, cellular phones, serial cables and trunk line. In modern days the PPP link is using the optical fiber networks and the advanced SONET links [7, pp.32-33].
High Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is totally a “bit oriented and code transparent” data link layer level protocol. This protocol has been developed and standardized by the ISO-International Organizational behaviour for Standardization. This protocol has been developed for the both types of circuit switched connections. ISO later standardized this protocol through the four developments. The four standardized versions of the HDLC are ISO-6258, ISO-4335, ISO-3309 and ISO-6159 [10, pp.63]. This protocol uses the flag concept for the transmission process. It uses the hexadecimal conventions for the identification of the frames. For the synchronized model it uses the “bit stuffing” method. The main logic of this “bit stuffing” method is that “If any point of time 5 or consecutive 1 bit were transmitted the data will be paused and 0 bit data will be transmitted.” The structure of the HDLC is
|8 bits||≥8 bits||8 or else16 bits||Length can be variable. 0 or more bits can be there||16 or else 32 bits||8 bits|
Figure 1: Structure of HDLC frame
[Source: 6, pp.50]
HDLC operates through three key frames. The tree frames are “I-frame- Information Frame, U-Frame- Unnumbered frames and S-frames- Supervisory frames”. The main operations happens with these three key frames and through the corresponding control fields. The control frame structure for those three frames are like the
|N(R)||N(R)||N(R)||p/f||N (S)||N (S)||N (S)||0||I-Frame|
Figure 2: HDLC Control Field Structure
[Source: 7, pp.33]
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SDLC- Synchronous data Link Control is a communication protocol which is entirely computer based. It is IBM’s layer 2 protocol for the SNA-Systems Network Architecture. IBM developed this protocol in the 1970. This protocol has been suppressed by the IP based protocols in afterwards. SDLC protocol works independently in the communication architecture. This protocol is majorly controlled through the 8044 controller [9, pp.12-16]. This protocol has the ability to communicate through two or three wire circuits and operates through half-duplex and full duplex mode. Intel implemented for the BITBUS protocol [11, pp.56-62].
ISDN-Integrated Services for Digital Network is the package of communication standards. This protocol was implemented in the switched network telephone network. The main advantage of the ISDN protocol is that it integrated both the data and the voice. ISDN protocol has four types of interfaces in the operation layer. The first one is BRI-basic rate Interface the second one is PRI-Primary Rate Interface, the third one is B-ISDN- Broadband ISDN and the fourth one is the N-ISDN- Narrowband ISDN [10, pp.36].
The ISDN protocol offers both the circuit switched and the packet switched network operation ability. This protocol was widely used in the internet networks. The speed of the ISDN network is ranges from the 64 Kb/second to 128Kb/second. However higher transmission speed can be achieved through the channel bonding in the broadband network [13, pp.56-58].
ISDN became very popular for the capability for transmitting both the dada and the voice at the same time. The business industry used this protocol for the web conferences as this protocol have the ability to simulate the transmissions but the transmission happens through a single line.
The ISDN protocol uses four interfaces for the specified reasons. The four interfaces are R-interface, U-interface, S-interface and the T-interface.
|U-interface||Two wired interface between the exchange and the network node|
|T-interface||Serial interface. This is between the computing device and the adapter in the terminal.|
|S-interface||Four wired interface.|
|R-interface||Points between the non-ISDN terminal and a TA(Terminal Adapter)|
Figure 3: Interfaces of the ISDN Network
[Source: 12, pp.26]
X.25 is the oldest protocol. This protocol has been formed and developed by the ITU-T formerly known as the CCITT. The concept of the development of the protocol was to develop an globally standardized Packet Switched Network. This protocol defines on the interfaces between one subscriber and one X.25 network. This interface is often termed as the interface between DTE and DCE where the DTE is the subscriber and the DTC is the defined X.25 network. The upgraded protocol version of the X.25 is the X.75 [14, pp.56-60].
X.75 protocol defines the interfaces between the two X.25 networks. This protocol differentiates between the networks through a Packet layer protocol. This X.25 protocol has three layers. The first layer is the Physical Layer which defines the physical procedures and the factions required for the data transmission. The second layer is the Data Link layer, this layer defines the procedures for the interchanges of the data within one DTE and one DTC. In this layer the LAPB (Link Access Procedure balanced data linked protocol) is applicable [18, pp.69]. The third and the core layer is the Packet layer. This packet layer defines the controls related to the exchanges and manages the virtual calls from the other packet switched networks.
|Call Setup, Cleaning||Incoming Call||Call Requests||X|
|Call Connected||Call Accepted||X|
|Identification Clear||Clear Request||X|
|Clear Confirmation||Clear Confirmation||X|
|Flow Control and Reset||PR||PR||X||X|
|Confirmation Of Reset||Confirmation Of Reset||X||x|
|Interrupt and data||Data||Data||X||X|
|Interrupt Confirmation||Interrupt Confirmation||X||X|
|Reset||Indication for Restart||Request for restart||X|
|Registration||Confirmation for the registration||Request for the registration||X|
Figure 4: X.25 Packet Types
[Source: 16, pp.56]
Ipv4- Internet protocol version 4 is the fourth development of the internet protocol. The connection what this protocol uses is the packet switched. The main motto of this protocol is to transmit the data faster and more securely of Wireless Network Research Report. This protocol has two areas one is the TCP- transmission control protocol and the other one is data integrity [15, pp.45-49]. The IPv4 uses the 32 bit addressing mechanism. The address patter for this protocol was using the dot to separate and the hexadecimal and the decimal number for the identification. The main advantage of this protocol is that it has greater level of flexibility for the allocation of the address. This flexibility helps to identify the nature of the network i.e. whether it is a private network or a public network or a class E network or a Broadcasting network [17, pp.56-58].
IPv6- Internet protocol version 6 is the most recent internet protocol developed by the IETF- Internet Engineering Task Force. Though this protocol has been developed for the more secure transmission of the data till date almost 96% web traffic still carries the IPv4 address protocol. The addressing limit for this protocol is a 128bit address [14, pp.56-60]. This addressing format has been separated by the eight groups and each group holds four hexadecimal numbers. This provides more security than the conventional IPv4.
|Version||Traffic Class||Flow level|
|Length of Payload||Next Header||Limit for Hop|
Figure 5: IPv6 Packet Header format
[Source: 13, pp.56]
2.3 Problems and the Solutions of the WAN Network
2.3.1. Problem 1: Isolation Problem
Sometimes found that the traffic is not transmitting within the newly installed Ethernet network. The network used the protocol X.25 and a private network (Environment given in the Appendix 1)
The diagnosis of the problem can show these
- Problem in cables of Switch or in LAN.
- Router problem.
- Port disabled on the X.25 Switch
- T1 data link is not good.
- Mismatch in the Ethernet configuration versions.
- Wrong configuration in the host and in the router [6, pp.59].
18.104.22.168. Solution for the Problem 1:
Step 1: Use EXEC command to get the health of the router.
Step 2: Use EXEC command in the show controllers. This will provide the status of the routers.
Step 3: Use EXEC command in the show interface serials. If this command shows that the line up and protocol down then the problem is in switch. Then the X.25 protocol needs to be relooked.
Step 4: Check the related hardware.
Step 5: Check the cables in the router. Configure CSU/DSU in looping mode.
Step 6: Use EXEC in the show interface serial if the line is down then the problem is in the cable needs to change the cable [8, pp.109].
More solutions in details (Refer to Appendix 2).
2.3.2. Problem 2: The WAN Network is not performing good
Sometimes it has been experienced that the VPLS or the MPLS network is not performing and proving a slower connection.
22.214.171.124. Solution for the Problem 2:
Step 1: Check the port configurations. Check whether the ports are in the same speed and in the duplex mode or not.
Step 2: Log in to the switch.
Step 3: Check DHCP Configuration.
Step 4: Check the MPLS port locations and the path dependencies.
Step 5: Use MRTG or NTOP for network monitoring. The issue will be resolved [18, pp.73].
2.3.3. Problem 3: Security Issues
The major threat rarely comes from the security aspects. Sometimes found that the security of a WAN system has been overlooked and the data was either lost or stolen.
126.96.36.199. Solution for the problem 3:
Step 1: Migrate to VPN.
Step 2: Remote access must be secured.
Step 3: Implement protections for the data identity.
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Step 4: Secure VoIP, SRTP and V3PN. VoIP stands for Voice over Internet Protocol. SRTP stands for Standard and Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol. The V3PN stands for Video and Voice enabled Virtual private Network .
The study has shown the three commonly faced problems and some of the adjacent problems. The solutions which have been produces through this study will help to resolve the problems for the longer runs. There is a few scopes in Wireless Network Research Report for the rise of the same problem if not the network has been restructuring or altered or more network has been added into the existing network.
Throughout this Wireless Network Research Report study it has been seen that the WAN network has the widest capability for the operational management assignment. The WAN network’s implementation is the widest one. While implementing the WAN network the administrator needs to look after the very common issues which have been identified during the course of the study. A strongly implemented WAN network maintains the protocol uniformity and the security will provide the best network infrastructure for the company.
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