Western & Non-western Countries Sexual Norms – Gender And Sexuality

1. Introduction:

Gender and sexuality indicate the differences between ‘males’ and ‘females’ based on the sexual norms in the Social Science societies of Western and Non-western countries (Achatz et al. 2010). Gender and sexuality play a great role in the shaping the society and they help to create the identity of a particular society. Human beings are divided based on their race, ethnicity, and class to experience the gender and sexuality in their culture. The studies on the gender and sexuality create the challenge for some of the categories such as male or heterosexual compared to others based on the political and Social Science implications.

Social Science

2. Change of Gender and Sexuality over time:

British Social Science Attitudes surveys periodically from the mid-1980 have to understand different roles of men and women within a family. It includes the difference between the roles of men and women in their families due to the difference in their level of income. The report shows that the women’s participation increased gradually in the labor marketing. The thought of public changed gradually as they started to think that there should be the same role for the men and women. Previously people thought that the job of a man is to earn money and the job of a woman to look after the family. However, then the thought has changed and now, the people believe that the jobs of men and women both are to contribute to their family income. According to bsa-30.natcen.ac.uk (2014), 43% of the total population in 1984 and 48% of the total population in 1987 supported the gender division. In 2012, that thought has changed a lot and now people support that both the men and women should earn money equally.

Anna et al. (2011) stated that in 1987, 36% of the total population used to think that if the women of a family will go out from the house for work purpose, then the caring role towards the family and the children will get hampered. This population has now decreased by 26% in 2012. In current years, the mentality of the people has changed and now they think that a working wife or mother has the same level of ability to care for their family and children compared to a woman who does not go outside for work.

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In the mid-1980s’ People used to believe that, the earning role of the women hampers the family life and care for the children. In 1989, 6 in every 10 people used to think that the working-women can bring the same care for her children and family as a non-working woman does but 3 out of every 10 people used to think the opposite (Cheveigné, 2009). In 2012, almost 9 out of 10 people agree and 1 out of 10 people disagree with this fact. Nowadays, most of the people support the part-time job for the women, those children are under school age and the percentage has increased compared to 1989 by 13%.

3. Approaches of Social Science Scientists towards the changing Gender and Sexuality:

Social Science scientists are performing their research towards the changing gender and sexuality in the society. The scientists come up with four different approaches that discussed below.

3.1 Gender-Neutral Approach:

This approach is famous as liberal feminism. It took place in the 1970s when the women get the access to take graduation level education and to become professors in medicine, engineering, and science. According to Vindication of the Rights of Women, 1792, major legislation established to guarantee women’s rights, pay, equal education and equal opportunity (Allegranti, 2011). In the view of Liberal feminists, there is no difference between men and women and everything is equivalent for both of them.

3.2 Difference Approach:

The different approach came in late 1980s-1990s. This approach states that women have a different way of knowing with their different and unique view. It says that women have a different way of speaking (ec.europa.eu, 2014). So, for the time of deciding any moral judgment, the opinion of women considered same important as men. The traditional feminine value used in this approach to reform the technology and science. This approach referred to traditional knowledge.

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3.3 Co-construction:

Co-construction approach came in the 1990s until present age. This approach highlights the technology, science, and gender constructed through social processes compared to natural or given process (Bambra et al. 2009). This approach helps to understand that the Social Science constructionism helps by analyzing the process of emerging the ideas, identities, and objects from the context of culture. This approach helps to find out that how the technology and gender influence and manipulate each other.

3.4 Gendered Innovations:

The gendered approach came in the year of 2000 and it still exists. This approach helps in motivate to increase the creativity in technology and science. It helps to improve the lifestyles of both the men and women. This approach says that the gender analysis helps to enrich the excellence in science and technology (Anna et al. 2011). This approach says that increased participation of women moves towards the technology and science that are gender-sensitive.

4. The process to achieve the current place regarding changing Gender and Sexuality:

Primary socialization is the initial thing to learn about the sexuality and gender. It starts even before a child is born in the society with the uncertainty about the possible gender of the child. In many societies in the world, give more value to the male child compared to a female child. It proved from the survey that in the countries like China, Papua New Guinea, India and the Maldives the female children suffer more from abuse and neglect (Cheveigné, 2009).

Some policies took to change the traditional thinking of people about gender and sexuality. The great example of it is The One-Child Policy and Gender in China. This policy helped to increase the value of women in China. This policy says that one couple in China can have only one child. This policy helped China to decrease the population ratio in that country. This policy says that if that one child is a female child, then also the parents and their family should keep them with the proper value.

According to Achatz et al. (2010), gender camps perform in those countries that used to give more value to the male child compared to the female child. These camps help the parents and other adult members of the family by encouraging or discouraging them to participate in various activities. Social network theory helps to increase the awareness of the increased value of the girl child.

Nowadays, the social networking sites have also become the medium to make the parents understand the importance of female child through some important message. The media also took an important role to increase the awareness of the population to save the girl child through many advertisements in the television, newspapers etc with effective messages. Learning about the gender and sexuality is a never-ending process (ec.europa.eu, 2014). In the society, the secondary groups are larger than the primary group. Secondary socialization happens to the secondary group of people within the society. It is the learning process and it happens whenever one new member joins the group. Immigration also helps to increase the socialization towards the gender and sexuality. It helps to open up the views of the people about the female members of the society.

5. Conclusion:

In this assignment, the researcher showed how the changes take place in the gender and sexuality over time. It explained that the views of the people of the society have changed nowadays compared to the period of the 1980s about the abilities and rights of women for the equal education, equal wages etc. compared to the male within the same society. The new view says that the women should enjoy the equal learning opportunity as men and they should contribute to their family income after taking care of their children and family. Different approaches described by the researcher those say that women are equal to men in every sense and now, the value of women in the labor market is increasing. Various policies made by governments of many countries, camps, advertisements in the social networking sites, TV, newspapers etc. help to increase the awareness towards the equality in the gender and sexuality.

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