The Assignment – Biological and Social Influences on Human Psychological Functioning
Write an essay addressing the following:
Evaluate the contribution of biological and social influences to human psychological functioning drawing on material from at least two chapters in Book 2, Challenging psychological Issues, Get psychological assignment help.
Word limit: 1500 words.
By completing this assignment you will have an opportunity to demonstrate the following learning outcomes.
Knowledge and understanding/cognitive skills
Knowledge of psychological topics and the different perspectives presented
in Book 2.
An ability to construct an argument with appropriate use of evidence,
concepts and theories, drawing on the range of topics and approaches discussed in Book2.
An understanding of the interrelatedness of theory and method in
An ability to engage in argumentative and/or evaluative analysis and write critically about material from Book 2.
An ability to select, summarize, describe and evaluate material from Book 2
An ability to plan, structure and write academic essays (communication).
An ability to write clearly and concisely (communication).
An understanding of how to reference academic sources (communication).
Introduction – psychological behavior and biological and social influences
The characteristic trait among human beings of being able to think and analyse the different factors in the external environment has a profound impact on the psychological behavior. The same are determined by the biological and social influences that are prevalent on all human beings when they grow and evolve in the world (Joiner et al. 2000).
Biological and social influences have an impact on the perception of individuals and it is this very same ideology that forms the basis for this particular study which will bring to focus the evolutionary perspective, intellectual functioning, the development of socio-cultural perspectives, impact of deterministic and probabilistic psychological developments, the aspect of attachments and comprehension and use of language among human society.
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The Evolutionary Perspective
In relation to the development of the psychological behavior among human beings, the evolutionary perspective is an important aspect that needs to be highlighted as the same has had a profound impact on the cognitive skills and behavior (Kensinger and Schacter, 1999).
From the early stages of the evolution of human beings in this world, the species have been characterised by the fact that the sexes had a major impact on the development of the society. From the Neanderthal times, males and females have been associated with different functions and roles in the society that have led to the difference in the psychological behavior and perceptions as well. Males were being associated with hunting and gathering food, protection of the clan which has led to the dominating and confronting outlook amongst them whereby the different factors prevailing in the society and environment are perceived to be a challenge to be overcome (Zimmerman et al. 2000). At the same time the role of the females had been associated with the functions of ensuring development and care for the other members of the clan that led to an evaluative and adaptive behavior of the same in the society.
The need and importance of highlighting these aspects are based on the fact that the same leads to the development of the social and biological influences among human beings in life.
Intellectual functioning in later life
The above-mentioned factors need to be elaborately explained in order to make the implications of these factors clearer to the readers as far as the psychological development of human beings are concerned. Experts believe that even till today, the society makes a difference among genders in the perception of capabilities among males and females and the way they are adept to the handing of different situations.
Challenges and the way human beings are brought up are predetermined at an early age by the parents and that is the reason as to why a male or female child is basically focused on the adoption of different methods of self development (Jorm et al. 1998). The primitive influence of society which requires males to be protective and the bread earner of the family is the main reason as to why the same is enforced upon a male child at the early stages of development whereby it becomes important of him to be focused on greater interactions and challenging roles in the society, and at the same time more and more female individuals develop and enhance the characteristic attributes of care and development for their family members which enhance their child development and family care behavior in society. This leads to the generation of two perspectives among human beings – males perceive that it is their responsibility to be more focused on the conversion external challenges to favorable influences and females focus on the identification of behavioral strategies that will ensure that the family and children are not affected by the external impacts and factors (Kramer et al. 1999).
Socio – Cultural Perspective
The reason as to why the parents subject their kids to differential aspects and treatments while development at the early stages is largely attributed to their socio-cultural perspective which is thought to play an important role in the perception and treatment of the different challenges and factors prevailing in the external environment and also amongst own family members.
It also needs to be highlighted that the cultural background, society and community also play an important role in influencing the psychological development among human beings (Haywood and Ghaill, 1996).
The first and foremost important factors that need to be highlighted is that the development of the development of values pertaining to relationships and knowledge and understanding among young people which are believed to have a major role in learning and development and consequently on the interpretation of the implications. At this particular stage the individual is also exposed to perceptions of the society which influences the psychological behavior.
Deterministic and Probabilistic Psychological Development
The psychological developments of the individuals are also influenced by aspects related to determinism and probabilistic outlooks.
Deterministic psychological development is characterized by the fact that it leads to the development of the outlook among the individuals that irrespective of the external circumstances and situations that are prevalent, the outcomes to a particular event are pre determined. As a result of which the behavior of these individuals are also based on preconceived individualistic notions which more often than not are regardless of any external influences. For example, the societal influence on the development of an individual as far as marriage or civil unions would have an impact on the deterministic outlook of the individual irrespective of other determinants (Pinker, 2000).
On the other hand, probabilistic psychological development is characterized by the presence of an alternative solution or mindset among the individuals which are largely based on anticipations and perceptions as far as the behavioral requirements of the individuals are concerned. It is characterized by the fact that the individuals generally have an evaluative approach to the psychological behavior (Giedd, 1999).
An important aspect that needs to be presented is the factor of attachments that are prevalent among individuals. Attachments in terms of religious, cultural and social attachments also influence the thought process and psychological behavior of human beings as they are most likely to compare and apprehend different factors prevailing in the external environment based on these values and perceptions.
At the same time, it is also important to bring to light about what is usually meant by the term attachment. It refers to the constant reference to one’s upbringing and development and emotional framework in the comparison and evaluation process of the different factors and aspects that have an impact on the livelihood of the individual and facing the different challenges and issues in life. Especially relevant in this case is the mention of the biological and social attachments influencing the behavior of the individuals (Buss, 2000).
Biological attachments are generally characterized by the concern and value of the learning and knowledge that is imparted by an individual’s family or guardians during the growing up process and the same influences the way external factors are perceived and addressed. An individual with strong emotional and biological attachments are more likely to perceive the external environment based on the values and ethics that have been impacted by collective feedback of the society and family. On the other hand, an individual who is characterized by lesser emotional and biological attachments are more likely to have a contemporary and unprecedented view of the same, attributed to much lesser influence on his personal and psychological development by the society and his family (Cooke et al. 1998).
Comprehension and use of Language
The comprehension and use of language is another important factor that has an impact on the development of the psychological aspect among individuals. The reason behind this is the fact that the ability to use language in the comprehension of the societal influences and behavior determine the outlook and intention to use speech patterns in an individual while expressing.
In case the social and biological influence on an individual had accommodated the use of language in expression of the intent of people and society, the individual is more likely to be dependent on the same for the interpretation of the impact of the society. At the same time, if the individual had been subjected to a system characterized by lesser use of speech or language than other means of communication such as body language and others, the individual becomes good at the interpretation of the same. The psychological perception and development is impacted by the comprehension and use of language, but it cannot be ensured that these have an overall influence on the same (Stainton-Rogers, 2001).
The aim of this academic presentation was to highlight the different aspects that are related to the psychological health among individuals, and the same provides specific attention to the importance of the biological and social influences that are prevalent in the development of human beings.
Even though the different facts and aspects that have been highlighted are based on the reflections provided by different authors, in this study an evaluative approach have been adopted to represent their points of view in a more effective manner. It is anticipated that the same will enable the readers to obtain a comprehensive idea regarding the same.