Bio-psycho-social perspective on mental illness
Hanser (2010) refers to research which states that Mental Health Assignment professionals should use a bio-psycho-social model in order to eradicate mental health problems. Although schizophrenia is a mental health problem, the reason for this disease may be medical, psychological or social. Thus, medical professionals use a bio-psycho-social approach. Schizophrenia is a chronic disease where patients such as Martin suffer from depression, social withdrawal, oversleeping, speak strangely, and have extreme reactions to criticism, among other factors (Shulman, 2011).
As per the case study, Martin is facing mental illness relating to Schizophrenia which is a psychological problem. He was very lazy and under confident so he was not associated with any profession. Apart from that, he had a notion that his parents had caring for his brother and not for him. This increased the severity of his mental illness. Schizophrenia of Martin arouse due to his use of cigarettes, cannabis and methamphetamine. Therefore, a person may suffer from schizophrenia due to unfulfilled social desires, mental agony or social isolation (Kuppers, 2011). In addition, a person may hallucinate (watch imaginary things from thoughts or perceptions) several times due to social detachment.
Martin is a human and he is by nature, biological, social and psychological creature (Fortinash & Holoday-Worret, 2012). Scientific methods can be utlilized in order to address Mental Health Assignment problems such as schizophrenia of Martin. Using biological theory, mental health professionals can understand the constructed mechanism of brain and body from a medical perspective (Mentalhelp.net, 2014). With the help of psychological theory, mental health professionals can investigate the development and operation of the mind and brain and how it affects feelings, thoughts and changing attitudes and behaviours of Martin (Gonzalez Saavedra, Sanchez Moyano-Lea & Garcia Tellez, 2012, p.1). Finally, through sociology and social factors, Mental Health Assignment professionals can understand social behaviour and social systems of Martin attempts to live in society. Since Martin is a biological, social and psychological creature by nature, medical health professionals can provide a holistic bio-psycho-social treatment for the recovery of Martin.
Figure 1: Bio-Psycho-Social approach
(Source: Gonzalez Saavedra, Sanchez Moyano-Lea & Garcia Tellez, 2012, p.13)
Social work perspective on mental illness:
The most challenging area related to mental health of Martin is personalisation. Mental health professionals face many challenges in this area related to diagnosis and the histories of Martin. To understand and diagnose the mental condition of Martin, the mental health professionals analyse the social context of Martin, including his parents, career, brother, and employment (Quin & Redmond, 2012, p.2). In the case of Martin, he belongs to a family with Supportive parents and a brother.Mental Health Assignment professionals should evaluate the social condition of friends and family along with the sibling of Martin. There is greater chance of recovery for Martin with proper evaluation of the social condition of family and friends (Yong, 2010, p.295).
Providing treatment for schizophrenia is not as curing a patient from a general disease it is totally different from general diseases that are curable only by medicine (Mechanic, 2004). Providing treatment to mental health patients like Martin focuses strongly on relevant and effective support for Martin to solve his problems. It signifies that there is a strong connection between personalisation and recovery for Martin. In light of this, the Mental Health Assignment professionals provide self-directed support to Martin for his recovery (Thinklocalactpersonal.org.uk, 2014).
Another key challenge under personalization, apart from managing the mental health problems, is ‘health and social care needs’. To treat mental illness like schizophrenia, mental health professionals need to perform a real assessment and have an effective plan for aligning Martin. Manipulation cannot work for Martin suffering from mental health problem like schizophrenia. Because it is a chronic disease, treating schizophrenia is an expensive process (Angermeyer, Matschinger & Schomerus, 2013, p.5).
Contemporary mental health policy and service delivery context in Australia
The Australian regulatory body named as Adjudication body has established policies for providing correct treatment for people with mental health issues. People with mental illness have full rights of citizenship (Oberholzer, 2011, p.160). According to the National Mental Health Policy 2008, patients should get full service from care service organisations. Full respect and dignity, along with personal freedom, is the right of the mental health patients like Martin.
There are some important priorities for medical health professionals. They should disclose all the possibilities and events in the presence of the patient and his/her family members about the condition and medication of the patient (Health.gov.au, 2014). After proper analysis, the mental health professional should discuss issues with the patient in a culturally acceptable language. The Mental Health Assignment professionals should provide support for the patients like Martin in order to cure them from schizophrenia (Bakken & Martinsen, 2013, p.182).
After the situation is disclosed to the patient and his family, those people should participate in the decision-making process and in implementing solutions (Cutcliffe, Hyrkas & Fowler, 2010). Besides this, just as the mental health patients have full authority to get all respect and dignity. All mental health patients should be given equitable treatment on a non-discriminatory basis, taking into account residence, age, cultural background, etc. So, the family members and the mental health professionals should encourage the community of Martin without any social stigma or discrimination (Health.gov.au, 2014).
An approach towards mental health issues that makes sense, in mental illness and distress:
There are generally three types of interventions used for aligning the mentally sick people. These include pharmacological intervention, psychological intervention and electroconvulsive therapy. In the course of pharmacological intervention, Mental Health Assignment professionals attempt to identify the unbalance of chemical substances such as neurotransmitters (it is the endogenous chemical substance that helps to transmit signals from one neuron or brain cell to another target nuron) and give suggestions medicines for different conditions such as dystopia, Parkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia, and akathisia. Mental health professionals need to treat mental illness (Vingilis & State, 2011) also use psychological interventions such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy.
Of these three interventions, the most effective approach is psychological intervention. The other two types of intervention — pharmacological intervention and electroconvulsive therapy are also necessary for treating mental health patients. Research cited by Duffy (2011, p.328) states that schizophrenia is a mental illness, and therefore Martin is suffering from this disease due to a psychological imbalance. By improving and balancing thought and behaviour of Martin, Mental Health Assignment professionals implement the directive structure of the CBT or the Cognitive Behaviour Theory. In the case of a schizophrenia patient Martin, the patient is aware of personal and environmental performance. Due to his psychological disorder, Martin was behaving awkwardly in several ways. Psychological behaviour therapy is helpful in this situation.
Risk assessment and management:
There are several risks that can arise in Martin’s case.
Violence: According to Bakken & Martinsen (2013, p.181), the schizophrenia patients create violence. In the case of Martin, he is over-reacting about his brother. His brother is just graduated from university and is ready to move on with his girlfriend where Martin is totally unemployed because of his mental health. He also thinks that his parents love his brother more. This situation can increase violence in Martin. This violence can be harmful for the people those stay near Martin and Martin himself also.
Suicide Tendency: Apart from that, there is tendency of committing suicide or attempting suicide among the schizophrenia patients. Moreover, the male patents are trying to attempting suicide more than female patients. In this ground there is also a chance for Martin to kill himself or attempting suicide repeatedly.
Unemployment: Martin is a graduate like his brother. But he was not employed anywhere due to his mental illness. It makes him feel that he is useless for anyone. It increases his tendency towards attempting suicide.
Chronic pain, physical disablement: For Martin, the chronic pains can be increased due to his illness of schizophrenia. He can become physically disable due to this mental illness.
Addiction to drugs and alcohols: Schizophrenia can be so much harmful for the mental health of Martin that it can increase the chance for the addiction of Martin towards the drugs and alcohols. In the opinion of Martin, the alcohols and drugs can give him the mental peace for sometimes.
Support plan for Martin:
Strong support system from his family and friends: In this context, Martin needs to have full support from his parents, sibling, friends as well as communal people within his community. It will help Martin to control the mental situation. It will help Martin to function well within his community and his friends. The family members and friends should tell Martin that they are always beside him in any situation and Martin can ask for any type of help whenever he needs.
Involvement with others: Increased involvement with the family members and friends and the other people within the social community will help Martin to forget about his illness. It will make him extrovert. It will increase the thinking power of Martin through engagement in various societal jobs. In will help Martin to increase his creativity power.
No medications: Medicines only helps to treat some symptoms of schizophrenia but, not all. So, it is important keep the medicines aside after consulting with the doctor. But, it is also true that Martin should not stop any medicines by his own. It can become harmful for his mental health.
Counselling: Effective and proper counselling can decrease the symptoms of schizophrenia from the mind of Martin. The doctors of Martin should be caring about his mental health. They should be polite towards Martin. The doctors should try to gain the trust of Martin. It will help Martin to recover early.
In the course of therapeutic alliances, the Mental Health Assignment professional accumulates all important information regarding the patient and the patient’s goals to ensure the recovery of the patient. The mental health professional attempts to establish and increase trust between the patient and the psychiatrist, so that the patient will cooperate in their psychiatric treatment. Mental health professionals also try to convince the patient to adhere to treatment. Another important function performed by mental health professionals, apart from incorporating patient details, is identifying practical obstacles during treatment (McGinty & Sridhara, 2014, p.952). At times patients do not get support from family members or the community, and sometimes patients are not able to participate in the entire treatment process. In these situations, the mental health professional is responsible for convincing the patient’s family members to provide consent for further treatment (Quin & Redmond, 2012, p.3).
Sometimes, the patient does not a response to medication. They then need psychological intervention. Antipsychotic drugs are available for schizophrenia. Generally, neuroleptic medicines such as Haldol, Prolixin, Navane, Loxapine, Stelazine, Trilafon and Mellaril are used for treating patients with schizophrenia (Sloan, Marx and Keane, 2011, p.504). Apart from these antipsychotic drugs, there are a new-generation drug such as Clozaril, which can be used for Schizophrenia.
It can understand from the given case study that with the help of bio-psycho-social perspective and social work perspective the mental illness of Martin can described. Martin was not attended in the social gathering and he has no such friends. Apart from that, he thought that his parents align his brother only that is incorrect actually. Implementing the integrated holistic support towards the Martin the medical professionals can help. Under this support system, the medical professionals and the nurses should implement Cognitive Behaviour therapy or CBT. Through this system, the medical professional helps to manage the mental illness from Martin with align of his parents.