Reading 1: Judith, D. (2012). Communication in today’s workplace (Chapter 1). Frenchs Forest, N.S.W. : Pearson Australia.
In this article, the author Judith Dwyer discussed the importance of communication in today’s workplace. First of all, the author starts with the different forms of communication. The author described the various forms of the verbal, non-verbal and graphic communication and how they are used in any workplace. The author described verbal communication as the words spoken between two or more people or the exchange of written words between the two or more people. The nonverbal communication is usually done by any means other than the words and graphics. The nonverbal communication occurs in oral, written and graphic communication. The graphic communication process represents the ideas, relationships and the connections visually with the diagrams, shapes and lines. The author described a model of communication in the paper. Then the author described the barriers present in any type of communication and recommended ways in which the barriers can be overcome by the parties involved in the communication process.
The author, in his article, also described the factors having impact on the workplace communication. The author identified a number of factors such as globalization, workforce diversity, managing organizational change and managing knowledge. The author also described the role of social media in the communication in workplace and how the social media is used by the people for communicating with each other. The author also described various social media tools such as exchange of ideas and innovation, employee engagement, budget restrictions etc. The author also identified ways in which the social media is used by the organizations to communicate with the customers and employees. The author also described the impact of organizational culture on the communication process in organizations and described the application of ethics in the workplace communication. The conclusion of the paper is quite good as it gives a complete overview of the different aspects of the communication and the importance of communication in the workplaces and the importance of intercultural communication in the organizational environment too.
Reading 2: Wray-Lake, L., & Syvertsen, A. K. (2011). The developmental roots of social responsibility in childhood and adolescence. In C. A. Flanagan & B. D. Christens (Eds.), Youth civic development: Work at the cutting edge. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 134, 11–25.
In the article ‘The Developmental Roots of Social Responsibility in Childhood and Adolescence’, the authors Wray-Lake and Syvertsen, have pointed out that social responsibility involves orienting values and establishing democratic equations based on principles of morality, ethics and justice. It leads to specific civic actions. It forms the basis of strong equations, communities, creation of social responsibility and increased focus on society for development oriented academicians and youths. The authors have pointed out that an individual context is not important; rather multiple factors such as family, school, etc. induce social responsibility in an individual. These factors affect the cognitive and socio-emotional abilities of an individual indirectly. The paper highlights that there are a lot of scholars who believe that values are developed in the adolescenct period, but, get crystallized only when a person becomes a young adult. These scholars believe that using different resources to establish social responsibility in children is a good strategy that can have a lot of impact.
The paper also highlights the fact that individuals do not necessarily select their sets of values, nor are the values developed automatically. In reality, the values develop from experiences and examples derived from communications with other people. Social responsibility is restricted by certain forces, however, the forces can be challenged by an individual. For example, a person might not be in a position to help his neighbors at a certain point of time. But, later, the individual can challenge the forces and help the neighbors. This is called benevolence, while challenging power structures is known as universalism. The authors have stated that due to the strong roots, social responsibility will get more attention from scientists, academicians, etc. in future. This concept establishes a type of citizenship that is based on caring for others and being just. It establishes obligations towards the society. The people who are socially responsible act as the positive agents of a democracy.
Reading 3: Yun, S., Cox, J. and Sims, H. (2007). Leadership and Teamwork: The Effects of Leadership and Job Satisfaction on Team Citizenship. Houston: International Journal of Leadership Studies.
In the article, “Leadership and Teamwork: The Effects of Leadership and Job Satisfaction on Team Citizenship”, the authors starts with developing a theoretical background of the study through reviewing the relevant literature on the leadership and citizenship behavior. The author also differentiated different types of leadership present in organizational studies i.e. directive leadership, aversive leadership, transactional leadership, transformational leadership, empowering leadership. The authors also described the different types of citizenship behavior in the article. The authors also developed some hypotheses based on which they have developed the further areas of the article. The authors developed a relationship between the various types of leadership styles and job satisfaction in the organizations by adopting appropriate methods.
In this study, the negative impacts of aversive nature of behavior in TOCB have been explained. The authors have revealed that if people are obliged to perform a task that the do not like, their satisfaction will be low. Also, the aversive leadership style will not lead to dissatisfied, unhappy workers as this kind of leaders will make employees work only as much as they want to and will not enforce anything. Though the authority is in the hands of the aversive leader, enforcement will be low. It will only be used in case of arbitrary and capricious employees. On the other hand, transactional leadership does not influence job satisfaction, while transformational leadership influences it positively.
This is because this form of leadership empowers employees and it is a very direct approach. TOCB is affected by the increased job satisfaction. Thus, this paper has concluded that job satisfaction does have impact on TOCB.