BIOL121 The Case Study Essay – Australian Catholic University.

Subject Code & Title: BIOL121 The Case Study
Weighting: 30%
Length and/or format: 1500-word written essay
Purpose: The case study essay allows you to demonstrate your integrated knowledge of the anatomical and physiological workings of the healthy human body.
Instructions: Choose ONE of the three case studies provided.Carefully read all materials provided for your chosen case study.Use the Word template provided to complete your essay on your chosen case study. You will need to research the topic beyond your lecture and workshop material. It is highly recommended that you start with the textbook. Include in text citations in your essay and a reference list at the end.
BIOL121 The Case Study Essay – Australian Catholic University.

BIOL121 The Case Study Essay - Australian Catholic University.

How to submit: Submit online through the Turnitin link provided on LEO. For submission please name the file with your student number and case study topic e.g. S00123456_JANE

Important to note:
You MUST write an essay and your answers MUST relate to the person in your chosen case study
• This assessment involves addressing a series of generic questions in the form of an essay.The questions relate directly to the case studies presented.
• All of your answers must be specific for the person in the case study, marks will not be given where your essay does not relate to the person in the case study.
• The answers to the questions in the case study must be integrated into an essay, which should include an appropriate introduction and conclusion.
• You can present the information in the order that you feel flows best; you don’t have to present it in the order of the questions.
• Your answers must be incorporated into sentences and paragraphs that include facts from the case study. If presented in question-answer style no marks will be given for quality of essay.

The purpose of this assessment is for you to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of NORMAL anatomy and physiology.

• Do not become distracted describing pathophysiological changes
• Do not simply list clinical signs and symptoms.
• Ensure you adequately explain relevant underlying anatomy and physiology.

Case Study: Jane
Jane is a 38 yo marathon runner who has presented to her GP clinic after completing a training run. She trains three days per week, and has experienced light-headedness, and significant muscle pain after her last three runs. Whilst talking to the clinic nurse, Jane admits to feeling lethargic, and like her “heart is racing”. She has also been a little unsteady on her feet and stumbled climbing the stairs in her home the previous evening. She reveals her fluid intake has been lower than usual, and although she is still eating well, her caloric intake has been less than usual. She has lost 2kg in the last month. She also states her resting heart rate used to be 51 bpm according to her Garmin watch.

BIOL121 The Case Study Essay – Australian Catholic University.

BIOL121 The Case Study Essay - Australian Catholic University.

Jane applied Voltaren Emulgel, a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), to her quadriceps and calves immediately after this morning’s run, hoping to relieve some of her muscle soreness.

A medical history was taken, a physical examination and urinalysis were conducted. Results below.

Physical examination:


Question 1
A. Describe the changes in volume and pressure that will be occurring in Jane’s chest cavity to achieve exhalation during a long run. Explain why these changes are occurring, and the effect upon airflow.
B. Describe the gas exchange occurring between air in Jane’s alveolar air and pulmonary blood. Will the rate of gas exchange change during exercise? Explain your answer.

Question 2
A. Which ANS response would you expect to dominate during Jane’s runs? Explain your answer.
B. Which hormone associated with glucose homeostasis would you expect to be most active during this ANS response? Why? Using your knowledge of glucose homeostasis, explain your answer.

Question 3
A. Describe the role of the kidneys in maintaining fluid balance with reference to the role of anti diuretic hormone (ADH). Is Jane at risk of not maintaining homeostatic fluid mechanisms? Why/why not?
B. What is a urinalysis and what is its significance for this case? With respect to the specific gravity (SG) component of Jane’s urinalysis result, and using your knowledge of normal kidney function, would you expect this result? Why/why not?

Question 4
A. Consider Jane’s blood pressure result and discuss whether the mean arterial pressure is likely to be varied from normal. In your answer you must include reference to a possible change in blood volume and briefly mention the consequences of any change in BP upon kidney function.
B. In this circumstance, do you think the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system or natriuretic peptides will dominate in the maintenance of Jane’s blood pressure. Discuss the role of your chosen system in blood pressure homeostasis to explain your answer.

BIOL121 The Case Study Essay – Australian Catholic University.

BIOL121 The Case Study Essay - Australian Catholic University.

Question 5:
A. Jane suffered a significant haemorrhage during her caesarean delivery and required a blood transfusion. Which blood type(s) could have been safely administered to Jane? Explain the potential consequences if Jane had been administered A+ blood.
B. At the time of her caesarean delivery, Jane was found to have a calcium deficiency. How would this have affected the ability of her blood to clot? Explain your answer.

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