Subject Code :- 1808NRS
Title :- Human Anatomy And Physiology
Assessment Type :- Written Assignment 2
Weighting :- 40%
Word Count :- 1500 words
Aim: The aim of this assignment is to apply the knowledge you have developed from material and learning outcomes covered in the first five weeks of 1808NRS. You will be provided with the opportunity to answer four questions each containing multiple parts. These questions aim to assess your under standing of important concepts relating to the cardiovascular system and respiratory system.
1808NRS Human Anatomy And Physiology Assignment 2 – Australia
This written assignment addresses the course’s learning outcomes 1 and 2.
1.Below there are 5 scenarios. Each scenario has a question related to the scenario.
2.Write an answer to each scenario’s question which may include (sub)parts.
a. Please adhere to the 1,500-word limit for the assignment. The marker will stop reading at 1500 words.
b. You may use Anatomy and Physiology textbooks and relevant journal articles valid websites as references in your responses.
c. You should use the question numbers as your headings
d. Please DO NOT include the case scenarios in your written assignment only the question number if you include the question it will count toward your word count
e. Intext references are also included in the word limit 1,500 words how ever the word limit does not include the reference list
f. Reference list should start on a new page
g. There should be no quotations in this written assignment
h. Images are not required
i. Use third person and academic language in your written assignment
j. Please review the Marking Criteria prior to submitting your written assignment
k. Submit your written assignment via Turnitin as per the instructions on the 1808NRS Moodle course site under Evidence of Learning.
Brock was recently rushed to the Robina Emergency Department following a my ocardial infarction heart attack Following a series of tests it was determined that his heart attack resulted in severe damage to a papillary muscle in his left ventricle causing the heart valves on this side of his heart to prolapse.
Explain what effect this cardiac event would have on the function of the left side of Brocks heart by answering the following questions.
1a) Describe the normal path way of blood through the left side of the heart beginning with the structures that deliver blood to that side of the heart the characteristics of blood that enters the left side of the heart the structures it moves through to leave the left side of the heart and where it goes to
1b) My ocardial infarction heart attack usually occurs due to a blockage in the coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle. List possible coronary arteries that may have been affected and define the structure of the heart they supply to.
1c) Stroke volume is directly influenced by the cardiac parameters known as preload and afterload. Define each of these factors and explain how they reduce stroke volume
1d) Referring to the equation for cardiac output explain how cardiac output would be affected and why
Before discharge from hospital Brock’s nurse discusses some of the risk factors for myocardial infarction.In Brocks case this includes his hyper tension. The nurse also discusses with Brock the medications that have been prescribed to treat his hyper tension including:
Question Two : Explain How does each drug work to lower blood pressure?
2a) Explain how the medication works i.e., its mechanism of action to lower blood pressure. Refer to the blood pressure equation (BP = CO x SVR) to assist with your explanation.
2b) Explain how beta-blockers work (i.e., its mechanism of action) to lower blood pressure. Using the blood pressure equation (BP = CO x SVR) to assist with your explanation.
The electrical signals sent through Brocks cardiac conduction system appear to be blocked With this knowledge answer the following questions.
3a) In the ECG trace below, circle where the abnormality occurs and label the effected wave/component
3b) Where in Brocks cardiac conduction system is the block age likely to be?
3c) Referring to the cardiac cycle what mechanical event is likely to be adversely affected due to this conduction issue?
Scenario 3 :
Jos has been diagnosed with emphysema (an obstructive disease of the airways). Jos finds it relatively easy to breathe in but when breathing out his airways close and it is difficult to forcefully exhale the air in his lungs. In addition emphysema leads to the destruction of alveoli walls therefore leading to larger but few air sacs (alveoli).
Answer the following questions regarding how emphysema affect the normal function of Jos’s respiratory system?
4 a) Explain what lung volumes and/or capacities may be affected by Jos’s obstructive respiratory condition
4b) Explain how gas exchange in the alveoli is affected and why
4c) Using the bicarbonate buffer system equation (CO 2 + H 2 O ↔ H 2 CO 3 ↔ H + + HCO 3 – ) explain what would happen with his blood carbon dioxide levels and blood pH in obstructive respiratory conditions
1808NRS Human Anatomy And Physiology Assignment 2 – Australia
Abby has previously been diagnosed with chronic bronchitis a long term inflammatory disease of the air ways that results in thick viscous mucous obstructing multiple air ways. Abby’s recent visit to the hospital diagnosed her with right side heart failure an in ability for the right side of the heart to work as an efficient pump due to her unmanaged pulmonary hyper tension. A consequence of this is peripheral oedema fluid shifting from the intravascular space to the interstitium.
Question Five :
Answer the following questions regarding how chronic bronchitis and right side heart failure affect the normal function of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
5a) Describe two protective mechanisms present in the respiratory tract to help prevent the passage of bacteria deep into the lungs
5b) Using your under standing of ventilation perfusion coupling (V/Q) explain how the respiratory ventilation and cardiovascular perfusion systems would respond to the airway obstructions and how this may result in pulmonary hyper tension
5c) Using your under standing of capillary ex change explain how right side heart failure can alter capillary exchange dynamics and cause peripheral oedema